530 POLITICAL SCIENCE.
as I think, educate many men who are qualified to cast a vote
into the habits of obedience. That they chose the represen-
tatives who make the laws is surely no good reason why they
should disobey the laws. Their sense of privilege will rather
identify them with their country, and thus they must condemn
more emphatically whatever injures it.
4. The desire to be educated and the extension of education
is somewhat in proportion to the spread of political rights in a
country. It is true that in a representative government there
is not the same direct educating power in the political direc-
tion as in a city-state, nor does reading^ which a person resorts
to for himself, educate as effectively as the ear and the pres-
ence in a public place where many are instructed at once.
The dramas of the poets, the works of statuaries, the plead-
ings before the courts at Athens, the discourses from the
bcmay were quickening in a higher degree than any public
spectacles or entertainments of modern states, and thousands
underwent together a refinement of their tastes, an awakening
of their intellects unknown in modern times. The finish of
the best dramas, and of the pleas made in law-cases by the
orators, shows that there was a demand for highly-wrought
works of great masters. This we attempt to supply by schools
and colleges, by books and newspapers, but we fail to reach
the cultivation of taste and of thought which was attained in
the best days of Athens. But the education offered to all,
and the course of self-improvement that may follow, are the
results of free government and a thoughtful religion. The
government is not afraid to educate the mass of men through
fear of their demanding political power ; but, having conceded
to them the power, desires to have them trained into habits
of reflection and moderation. The lower class of the people
discover what education can do for their children's advance-
' ment, and think it one of the great blessings of a free country.
Then follow public libraries in city and country, such as are
growing up in our land, and are destined to become universal.
The opportunities of preparing for special employments in the
beautiful and the useful arts, by an education at a small